Antibacterial Properties and Fluoride Release of Glass Ionomer Cement Containing Coumarin Derivative

Zuliani Mahmood1, Nor Ain Fatihah Azlisham2, Dasmawati Mohamad2
1 Unit of Paediatric Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia
2 Unit of Biomaterials, School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu, Kelantan , Malaysia

Background: Glass Ionomer Cements (GICs) are widely used due to their ability to chemically bond to tooth structure with anti-caries and remineralizing potential. However, the fluoride-releasing activity of GICs is still inadequate for effective antibacterial control in the oral environment. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of incorporating antibacterial agent, hydrazinyl coumarin derivative (HCD), in two commercial GICs.

Methods: HCD was in-house synthesized and incorporated into resin-modified Fuji II LC (GIC-HCD F2) and high fluoride conventional Fuji VII GICs (GIC-HCD F7) at weight percentages of 1% and 2%. The antibacterial properties were assessed via agar well diffusion and turbidity measurement of bacterial growth against S. sanguinis. The inhibition zones and optical density were measured and recorded after 24 hours incubation. The morphological evaluation of S. sanguinis on the surface of GICs was observed under Scanning Electron Microscope. The amount of fluoride release was measured using fluoridemeter for 21 days. One-way ANOVA with post-hoc Bonferroni test was used to determine the significant differences between the groups.

Results: At both weight percentages, the incorporation of HCD increased the inhibition zones, slowed the bacterial growth, showed less number of bacterial adhesion on the surface of GICs, and enhanced the release of fluoride in both GIC-HCD F2 and GIC-HCD F7 compared to their control groups respectively. The highest inhibition zone and significantly higher fluoride release (p<0.05) compared to control throughout the 21 days study period were observed in GIC-HCD F2 at 2% (w/w).

Conclusion: The incorporation of HCD in GICs enhanced the antibacterial properties, lessen the number of bacteria on the materials and enhanced fluoride release.

Zuliani Mahmood